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Endnotes

1 “Interoperability” in this setting is defined as the ability of two or more systems or devices to exchange and interpret data. For systems to be interoperable, they must be able to exchange information and meaningfully use the information they have exchanged. For more information, see Fridsma, D. (2014). Interoperability vs health information exchange: Setting the record straight. Health IT Buzz. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/buzz-blog/meaningful-use/interoperability-health-information-exchange-setting-record-straight
2 Landi, H. (2016). Survey: Adoption of health IT to improve care coordination remains sluggish. Retrieved from http://www.healthcare-informatics.com/news-item/patient-engagement/survey-adoption-health-it-improve-care-coordination-remains-sluggish
3 Madden, J. M., Lakoma, M. D., Rusinak, D., Lu, C. Y., & Soumerai, S. B. (2016, April). Missing clinical and behavioral health data in a large electronic health record (EHR) system. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. Advance online publication. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jamia/ocw021. Retrieved from http://jamia.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2016/04/12/jamia.ocw021
4 HealthIT.gov. (2016) What is HIE (health information exchange). Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/providers-professionals/health-information-exchange/what-hie
5 Office for Civil Rights. (2008). Privacy: HIPAA for professionals. Retrieved from https://www.hhs.gov/hipaa/for-professionals/privacy/index.html
6 Belfort, R., Bernstein, W., & Ingargiola, S. (2014). Integrating physical and behavioral health: Strategies for overcoming legal barriers to health information exchange. Retrieved from https://www.manatt.com/uploadedFiles/Content/4_News_and_Events/Newsletters/IntegratingPhysicalandBehavioralHealth.pdf
7 Knopf, A. (2013, May 20). In fight over 42 CFR Part 2, confidentiality wins over convenience—for now. Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly. Retrieved from http://www.alcoholismdrugabuseweekly.com/article-detail/in-fight-over-42-cfr-part-2-confidentiality-wins-over-convenience--for-now.aspx
8 Association for Community Affiliated Plans. (2016, January). The impact of 42 CFR Part 2 on care coordination by health plans for members with substance use disorders. Retrieved from http://communityplans.net/Portals/0/Fact%20Sheets/The%20Impact%20of%2042%20CFR%20Part%202%20on%20Care%20Coordination.pdf; Center for Integrated Health Solutions. (2014, September). The current state of sharing behavioral health information in health information exchanges. Retrieved from http://www.integration.samhsa.gov/operations-administration/HIE_paper_FINAL.pdf
9 Miller, H. D. (2009). From volume to value: Better ways to pay for health care. Health Affairs 28(5), 1418–1428. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.28.5.1418. Retrieved from http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/28/5/1418.full
10 Nielsen, M., Olayiwola, J. N., Grundy, P., Grumbach, K., (ed.) Shaljian, M. (2014). The patient-centered medical home’s impact on cost & quality: An annual update of the evidence 2012–2013. Retrieved from https://www.pcpcc.org/resource/ medical-homes-impact-cost-quality; Zuvekas, S. H., and Cohen, J. W. (2016). Fee-For-Service, While Much Maligned, Remains The Dominant Payment Method For Physician Visits. Health Affairs 35(3), 411-414. Retrieved from http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/35/3/411.abstract
11 Marchibroda, J. (2014, August 11). Interoperability. (Health Policy Brief). Retrieved from http://www.healthaffairs.org/healthpolicybriefs/brief.php?brief_id=122
12 Gilman, D. J., & Cooper, J. C. (2010). There is a time to keep silent and a time to speak, the hard part is knowing which is which: Striking the balance between privacy protection and the flow of health care information. Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review 16(2). Retrieved from http://repository.law.umich.edu/mttlr/vol16/iss2/1
13 Steele, G. (2016, September 20). The culture of data sharing has to change [Health Affairs blog post]. Retrieved from http://healthaffairs.org/blog/2016/09/20/the-culture-of-data-sharing-has-to-change; Kaushal, M., & Darling, M. (2016, May 18). Health care data as a public utility: How do we get there? [Brookings Institution Tech Tank blog post]. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/techtank/2016/05/18/health-care-data-as-a-public-utility-how-do-we-get-there
14 Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology. (2015, April). Report to Congress: Report on information blocking.
15 Office for Civil Rights. (2009, October 28). HITECH Act enforcement interim final rule. Retrieved from the HHS.gov Web site: http://www.hhs.gov/hipaa/for-professionals/special-topics/HITECH-act-enforcement-interim-final-rule/index.html
16 Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2016, January 12). Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Program basics. Retrieved from CMS.gov Web site: https://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Legislation/EHRIncentivePrograms/Basics.html
17 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2016, February 29). RE: Availability of HITECH administrative matching funds to help professionals and hospitals eligible for Medicaid EHR incentive payments connect to other Medicaid providers. Retrieved from https://www.medicaid.gov/federal-policy-guidance/downloads/SMD16003.pdf
18 Hamilton, M., Matheson, D. H. M., Dorsey, E. R., George, B. P., Sadoff, D., & Yoshimura, S. (2013). The anatomy of health care in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association 310(18), 1947–1965.
19 National Governors Association. (2016, February). Interview with Laura McCrary, Executive Director of the Kansas Health Information Network.
20 Marchibroda, J. (2014, August 11). Interoperability. (Health Policy Brief). Retrieved from http://www.healthaffairs.org/healthpolicybriefs/brief.php?brief_id=122
21 Oscislawski, H. (2011, February 24). Kansas aligns state privacy laws with HIPAA as HIE standard [Legal Health Information Exchange blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.legalhie.com/privacy/kansas-aligns-state-privacy-laws-with-hipaa-as-hie-standard
22 Carey, C. A., & Stern, G. (2012). Protecting patient privacy: Strategies for regulating electronic health records exchange. New York: New York Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved from http://www.nyclu.org/files/publications/nyclu_PatientPrivacy.pdf
23 Association for Community Affiliated Plans. (2016, January). The impact of 42 CFR Part 2 on care coordination by health plans for members with substance use disorders. Retrieved from http://communityplans.net/Portals/0/Fact%20Sheets/The%20Impact%20of%2042%20CFR%20Part%202%20on%20Care%20Coordination.pdf; Center for Integrated Health Solutions. (2014, September). The current state of sharing behavioral health information in health information exchanges. Retrieved from http://www.integration.samhsa.gov/operations-administration/HIE_paper_FINAL.pdf
24 Nevada Regulatory Service. (2016). Chapter 439—Administration of Public Health. Retrieved from https://www.leg.state.nv.us/nrs/NRS-439.html#NRS439Sec538
25 Ohio Regulatory Committee. (2016, October 12). Chapter 3798: Protected health information. Retrieved from http://codes.ohio.gov/orc/3798
26 Colorado Department of Health Care Policy and Financing. Report to: Joint Budget Committee of the General Assembly, Health and Human Services Committee of the Senate, and Health and Environment Committee of the House of Representatives. Retrieved from http://www.coloradohealthpartnerships.com/provider/integrated/HCPF-HB-1242-Report-on-Integrated-Care.pdf
27 New York State Department of Health. Authorization for release of health information pursuant to HIPAA. OCA Official Form No.: 960. Retrieved from https://www.travelers.com/iw-documents/claims/workers-compensation/state/ny/NY_HIPAA.Form.pdf
28 Michigan Department of Health and Human Services. (2016). Michigan Behavioral Health Standard Consent Form. Retrieved from http://www.michigan.gov/mdhhs/0,5885,7-339-71550_2941_58005-343686--,00.html
29 Conversation with Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (2016, September 23).
30 Belfort, R., Bernstein, W., & Ingargiola, S. (2014). Integrating physical and behavioral health: Strategies for overcoming legal barriers to health information exchange. Retrieved from https://www.manatt.com/uploadedFiles/Content/4_News_and_Events/Newsletters/IntegratingPhysicalandBehavioralHealth.pdf
31 New York State Department of Health. (2002, October 15). HIPAA preemption charts. Retrieved from http://www.health.ny.gov/regulations/hipaa/preemption_charts.htm
32 Clement, L., Tipping, K., Corbin, N., & Rosas, L. Understanding privacy laws for physical and behavioral health information sharing. Talk presented to the Oregon Health Authority. Retrieved from http://www.oregon.gov/oha/amh/docs/Understanding_Privacy_Laws_for_Physical_and_Behavioral_Health_Information_Sharing.pdf
33 National Governors Association. (2016, February). Interview with Laura McCrary, Executive Director of the Kansas Health Information Network.
34 National Governors Association. (2015, November). Interview with Melissa Kotrys, Chief Executive Officer of Arizona Health-e Connection.
35 National Governors Association. (2016, February). Interview with Laura McCrary, Executive Director of the Kansas Health Information Network.
36 Oregon Health Authority. Oregon Office of Health Analytics: Technical specifications and guidance documents for hospital transformation performance program. Retrieved from http://www.oregon.gov/oha/analytics/Pages/Hospital-Baseline-Data.aspx
37 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2016, February 29). RE: Availability of HITECH administrative matching funds to help professionals and hospitals eligible for Medicaid EHR incentive payments connect to other Medicaid providers. Retrieved from https://www.medicaid.gov/federal-policy-guidance/downloads/SMD16003.pdf
38 Connecticut Senate Bill No. 811, Public Act No. 15-146. An act concerning hospitals, insurers, and health care consumers. Retrieved from https://www.cga.ct.gov/2015/act/pa/pdf/2015PA-00146-R00SB-00811-PA.pdf
39 National Governors Association. (2016, September). Interview with Marni Bussell, SIM Project Director, Iowa Medicaid Enterprise.
40 Oregon Health Authority. Health Information Technology Oversight Council. Retrieved from http://www.oregon.gov/oha/OHPR/HITOC/pages/index.aspx; HealthIT.gov. Interoperability Pledge. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/commitment
41 Hearing before the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions on achieving the promise of health information technology: What can providers and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services do to improve the electronic health record user experience? (testimony of T. A. Pletcher). Retrieved from http://www.help.senate.gov/hearings/achieving-the-promise-of-health-information-technology
42 National Governors Association. (2016, July). Interview with Georgia Maheras, Deputy Director of Health Care Reform for Payment and Delivery System Reform and Director, Vermont Health Care Innovation Project, Agency of Administration, State of Vermont.
43 Kansas Health Information Technology and Exchange Act of 2013. Retrieved from http://media.khi.org/news/documents/2012/10/10/khite-2011.pdf
44 NRS: Chapter 439—Administration of Public Health. (2016). Retrieved from https://www.leg.state.nv.us/nrs/NRS-439.html#NRS439Sec538
45 Michigan Department of Health and Human Services. (2016). Michigan Behavioral Health Standard Consent Form. Retrieved from http://www.michigan.gov/mdhhs/0,5885,7-339-71550_2941_58005-343686--,00.html
46 Act No. 129 Public Acts of 2014, State of Michigan 97th Legislature Regular Session of 2014. (2014, May 22). Retrieved from https://www.legislature.mi.gov/documents/2013-2014/publicact/pdf/2014-PA-0129.pdf
47 Oregon Health Authority. Behavioral Health Information Sharing Advisory Group (Fact Sheet). Retrieved from https://www.oregon.gov/oha/bhp/BH%20Info%20Documents/9-29-2015-BH%20Info-Factsheet.pdf
48 Oregon Health Authority. (2016). Behavioral health policy: Behavioral Health Information Sharing Advisory Group. Retrieved from http://www.oregon.gov/oha/bhp/Pages/Behavioral-Health-Info.aspx
49 Connecticut Senate Bill No. 811, Public Act No. 15-146. An act concerning hospitals, insurers, and health care consumers. Retrieved from https://www.cga.ct.gov/2015/act/pa/pdf/2015PA-00146-R00SB-00811-PA.pdf
50 Oregon Health Authority. Health Information Technology Oversight Council. Retrieved from http://www.oregon.gov/oha/OHPR/HITOC/pages/index.aspx; HealthIT.gov. Interoperability Pledge. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/commitment
51 National Governors Association. (2016, June). Interview with Susan Otter, State Coordinator for Health Information Technology at Oregon Health Authority.
52 Vermont Information Technology Leaders. Title 18, Chapter 219, Subchapter 001, § 9352. Retrieved from http://legislature.vermont.gov/statutes/section/18/219/09352
53 Vermont Information Technology Leaders. Connectivity criteria. Retrieved from https://www.vitl.net/explore/connectivity-criteria
54 Mathematica Policy Research & Harvard School of Public Health. Health information technology in the United States 2015: Transition to a post-HITECH world. Washington, DC: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2015. Retrieved from http://www.rwjf.org/en/library/research/2015/09/health-information-technology-in-the-united-states-2015.html; and Kubu, P. Mobile point of care: Digital transformation of health care. Retrieved from http://ihs2007.ihsummit.eu/content/files/2_11_Kubu.pdf
55 Health Level 7 International. HL7 Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources Specification (FHIR®), Release 1 (HL7 Standards Product Brief). Retrieved from http://www.hl7.org/implement/standards/product_brief.cfm?product_id=343
56 Vest, J. R., & Gamm, L. D. (2010). Health information exchange: Persistent challenges and new strategies. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 17(3), 288–294. doi:10.1136/jamia.2010.003673. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2995716
57 Holmgren, A. J., & Adler-Milstein, J. (2016). Health information exchange in U.S. hospitals: The current landscape and a path to improved information sharing. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan School of Information.
58 Mathematica Policy Research & Harvard School of Public Health. Health information technology in the United States 2015: Transition to a post-HITECH world. Washington, DC: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2015. Retrieved from http://www.rwjf.org/en/library/research/2015/09/health-information-technology-in-the-united-states-2015.html
59 Mathematica Policy Research & Harvard School of Public Health. Health information technology in the United States 2015: Transition to a post-HITECH world. Washington, DC: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2015. Retrieved from http://www.rwjf.org/en/library/research/2015/09/health-information-technology-in-the-united-states-2015.html
60 Kolkman, L., & Brown, B. (2011). Health information exchange formation guide. Retrieved from http://apps.himss.org/hieformationguide
61 Terry, K. (2014, July 8). Health information exchanges introduce patient consent questions. Medical Economics. Retrieved from http://medicaleconomics.modernmedicine.com/medical-economics/content/tags/health-information-exchange/health-information-exchanges-introduce-pa; Tripathi, M., Delano, D., Lund, B., & Rudolph, L. (2009). Engaging patients for health information exchange. Health Affairs 28, 2.
62 Gray, P. (2011). Consent options for electronic health information exchange in Texas. Houston: University of Houston Law Center Health and Policy Institute. Retrieved from https://www.illinois.gov/sites/ilhie/Documents/Consent%20Options%20for%20HIE%20Texas_June2011.pdf
63 Dullabh, P., Ubri, P., Loganathan, S., & Latterner, M. (2014). Evaluation of the State Health Information Exchange Cooperative Agreement Program: State approaches to enabling HIE (Typology Brief). Retrieved from http://www.norc.org/PDFs/Evaluation%20of%20the%20State%20Health%20Information%20Exchange%20Cooperative%20Agreement%20Program.pdf
64 Goldstein, M. M., & Rein, A. L. (2010). Consumer consent options for electronic health information exchange: Policy considerations and analysis. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/privacy-security/cover-page-and-executive-summary-032610.pdf
65 Ibid.
66 Connect Virginia. How does HIE help me? Retrieved from https://www.connectvirginia.org/patients
67 State of Illinois Office of Health Information Technology & Illinois Health Information Authority. Multi-state HIE consent policy survey. Retrieved from https://www.illinois.gov/sites/ilhie/Documents/Appendix%20A-Operational%20Plans%20for%20HIE%20with%20Cover%20Page.pdf
68 Massachusetts eHealth Institute. (2014, September 11). Mass HIway consent: Operationalizing opt-in. Retrieved from http://www.masshiway.net/HPP/cs/groups/hpp/documents/document/zxzj/mdaw/~edisp/orion-mao-devc000438.pdf
69 Business Associates: 45 CFR 164.502(e), 164.504(e), 164.532(d), and (e). Office of Civil Rights, US Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/ocr/privacy/hipaa/understanding/coveredentities/businessassociates.pdf
70 Knopf, A. (2013, May 20). In fight over 42 CFR Part 2, confidentiality wins over convenience—for now. Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly. Retrieved from http://www.alcoholismdrugabuseweekly.com/article-detail/in-fight-over-42-cfr-part-2-confidentiality-wins-over-convenience--for-now.aspx
71 US Government Publishing Office. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 42: Public health. Retrieved from http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?rgn=div5;node=42%3A1.0.1.1.2#se42.1.2_111
72 Hedden, S. L., Kennet, J., Lipari, R., Medley, G., Tice, P., Copello, E. A. P., & Kroutil, L. A. (2015). Behavioral health trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 15-4927, NSDUH Series H-50). Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-FRR1-2014/NSDUH-FRR1-2014.pdf; Nardone, M., Snyder, S., & Paradise, J. (2016, February 12). Integrating physical and behavioral health care: Promising Medicaid models (Issue Brief). Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved from http://kff.org/report-section/integrating-physical-and-behavioral-health-care-promising-medicaid-models-issue-brief
73 Medicaid and CHIP Payment and Access Commission. Behavioral health in the Medicaid program—people, use, and expenditures. Retrieved from https://www.macpac.gov/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Behavioral-Health-in-the-Medicaid-Program%E2%80%94People-Use-and-Expenditures.pdf
74 US Department of Health and Human Services. (2016, February 9). Confidentiality of Substance Use Disorder Patient Records, 81 FR 6987, 6987-7024 (Amending 42 CFR Part 2). Retrieved from https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2016/02/09/2016-01841/confidentiality-of-substance-use-disorder-patient-records
75 Hu, L. L., Sparenborg, S., & Tai, B. (2011). Privacy protection for patients with substance use problems. Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation 2, 227–233. doi:10.2147/SAR.S27237. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3846317
76 Ibid.
77 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Confidentiality regulations FAQs. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/about-us/who-we-are/laws/confidentiality-regulations-faqs
78 Unlike the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, which clearly defines what counts as “patient health information,” 42 Code of Federal Regulation’s definition of “treatment information” is much less comprehensive; “restricted treatment information” refers to any information that “would identify a patient as an alcohol or drug abuser,” either directly or indirectly. See HHS.gov. (2008, May 7). Summary of the HIPAA privacy rule. Retrieved from http://www.hhs.gov/hipaa/for-professionals/privacy/laws-regulations; US Government Publishing Office. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 42: Public health. Retrieved from http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?rgn=div5;node=42%3A1.0.1.1.2#se42.1.2_111
79 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Confidentiality regulations FAQs. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/about-us/who-we-are/laws/confidentiality-regulations-faqs
80 Lardiere, M. R. (2013). Unlocking and sharing behavioral health records: Movement emerges to exchange sensitive records through HIEs. Journal of AHIMA 84(4), 36–40. Retrieved from http://bok.ahima.org/doc?oid=106320#.V_-jtsEVBqJ
81 Pratt, M. K. (2016, May 13). Getting behavioral health online with EHRs. Medical Economics. Retrieved from http://medicaleconomics.modernmedicine.com/medical-economics/news/behavioral-health-ehr-adoption-still-struggling
82 Pritts, J. L. (2002). Altered states: State health privacy laws and the impact of the Federal Health Privacy Rule. Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics 2(2 Issue 6), 1–38. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1047&context=yjhple
83 Pritts, J., Lewis, S., Jacobson, R., Lucia, K., & Kayne, K. (2009). Privacy and security solutions for interoperable health information exchange: Report on state law requirements for patient permission to disclose health information. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/disclosure-report-1.pdf
84 Rothenberg, L. S., Ganz, D. A., & Wenger, N. S. (2015). Possible legal barriers for PCP access to mental health treatment records. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research 43(2), 319–329. doi:10.1007/s11414-015-9458-7. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11414-015-9458-7
85 Pritts, J., Lewis, S., Jacobson, R., Lucia, K., & Kayne, K. (2009). Privacy and security solutions for interoperable health information exchange: Report on state law requirements for patient permission to disclose health information. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/disclosure-report-1.pdf
86 Pennsylvania Statutes Title 35 P.S. Health and Safety § 7607. FindLaw Web site. Retrieved from http://codes.findlaw.com/pa/title-35-ps-health-and-safety/pa-st-sect-35-7607.html
87 Foley & Lardner LLP. (2014). Privacy issues in the sharing of genetic information. Retrieved from https://www.foley.com/files/Publication/7465587b-5df9-4f85-9969-68ce1b4c39af/Presentation/PublicationAttachment/88ba6035-c031-4ff4-b4e2-6ad15030b17d/PrivacyIssuesintheSharingofGeneticInformation.pdf
88 Requirements for Genetic Testing and Written Informed Consent. N.Y. Ins. Law § 2615, Health Information & the Law. Retrieved from http://www.healthinfolaw.org/state-law/requirements-genetic-testing-and-written-informed-consent-%E2%80%93-ny-ins-law-%C2%A7-2615
89 Justice and Health Connect. (2013, June 23). A quick guide to state laws on sensitive health information. Retrieved from http://www.jhconnect.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/State-Health-Laws-fact-sheet-June-23-2013.pdf; New York Public Health Section 17—Release of Medical Records. HITECH compliance guide. Retrieved from http://law.onecle.com/new-york/public-health/PBH017_17.html
90 2016 Minnesota Statutes § 144.293. Retrieved from https://www.revisor.mn.gov/statutes/?id=144.293
91 Justice and Health Connect. (2013, June 23). A quick guide to state laws on sensitive health information. Retrieved from http://www.jhconnect.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/State-Health-Laws-fact-sheet-June-23-2013.pdf
92 New York Public Health Section 17—Release of Medical Records. HITECH compliance guide. Retrieved from http://law.onecle.com/new-york/public-health/PBH017_17.html
93 2016 Minnesota Statutes § 144.293. Retrieved from https://www.revisor.mn.gov/statutes/?id=144.293
94 Belfort, R., Bernstein, W., & Ingargiola, S. (2014). Integrating physical and behavioral health: Strategies for overcoming legal barriers to health information exchange. Retrieved from https://www.manatt.com/uploadedFiles/Content/4_News_and_Events/Newsletters/IntegratingPhysicalandBehavioralHealth.pdf
95 Pritts, J., Lewis, S., Jacobson, R., Lucia, K., & Kayne, K. (2009). Privacy and security solutions for interoperable health information exchange: Report on state law requirements for patient permission to disclose health information. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/disclosure-report-1.pdf
96 Ibid.
97 Ibid.
98 HealthIT.gov. Computable privacy. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/policy-researchers-implementers/computable-privacy
99 HealthIT.gov. DS4P initiative. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/providers-professionals/ds4p-initiative
100 Ibid.
101 Wang, T. & Biedermann, S. (2010, August). Running the Numbers on an EHR: Applying Cost-Benefit Analysis in EHR Adoption. AHiMA. Retrieved from http://bok.ahima.org/doc?oid=101607#.WCDubMEzVqJ; Coye, M. J. & Kell, J. (2006). How Hospitals Confront New Technology. Health Affairs vol. 25 no. 1, 163-173; Mazzolini, C. (2013, November 25). EHR holdouts: Why some physicians refuse to plug in. Medical Economics. Retrieved from http://medicaleconomics.modernmedicine.com/medical-economics/content/tags/2013-salary-survey/ehr-holdouts-why-some-physicians-refuse-plug
102 Schilling, B. (2011, June-July). The federal government has put billions into promoting electronic health record use: How is it going? (Quality Matters newsletter). Retrieved from http://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/newsletters/quality-matters/2011/june-july-2011/in-focus
103 Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2016, January 12). Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Program basics. Retrieved from CMS.gov Web site: https://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Legislation/EHRIncentivePrograms/Basics.html
104 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2016, February 29). RE: Availability of HITECH administrative matching funds to help professionals and hospitals eligible for Medicaid EHR incentive payments connect to other Medicaid providers. Retrieved from https://www.medicaid.gov/federal-policy-guidance/downloads/SMD16003.pdf
105 Marchibroda, J. (2014, August 11). Interoperability. (Health Policy Brief). Retrieved from http://www.healthaffairs.org/healthpolicybriefs/brief.php?brief_id=122
106 Jha, A. K., & Adler-Milstein, J. (2014, March). Health information exchange among U.S. hospitals: Who’s in, who’s out, and why? Healthcare 2, 26–32.
107 Marchibroda, J. (2014, August 11). Interoperability. (Health Policy Brief). Retrieved from http://www.healthaffairs.org/healthpolicybriefs/brief.php?brief_id=122
108 Steele, G. (2016, September 20). The culture of data sharing has to change [Health Affairs blog post]. Retrieved from http://healthaffairs.org/blog/2016/09/20/the-culture-of-data-sharing-has-to-change; Kaushal, M., & Darling, M. (2016, May 18). Health care data as a public utility: How do we get there? [Brookings Institution Tech Tank blog post]. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/techtank/2016/05/18/health-care-data-as-a-public-utility-how-do-we-get-there
109 Wang, T. & Biedermann, S. Running the Numbers on an EHR: Applying Cost-Benefit Analysis in EHR Adoption. AHiMA. http://bok.ahima.org/doc?oid=101607#.WCDubMEzVqJ; Coye, M. J. & Kell, J. (2006). How Hospitals Confront New Technology. Health Affairs vol. 25 no. 1, 163-173; Mazzolini, C. (2013, November 25). EHR holdouts: Why some physicians refuse to plug in. Medical Economics.
110 Vest, J. R., & Gamm, L. D. (2010). Health information exchange: Persistent challenges and new strategies. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 17(3), 288–294; Marchibroda, J. (2014, August 11). Interoperability. (Health Policy Brief). Retrieved from http://www.healthaffairs.org/healthpolicybriefs/brief.php?brief_id=122; Wright, A., Soran, C., Jenter, C. A., Volk, L. A., Bates, D. W., & Simon, S. R. (2010). Physician attitudes toward health information exchange: Results of a statewide survey. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 17(1), 66–70. doi:10.1197/jamia.M3241.
111 Butler, M. (2014). Healthcare reaches the EHR tipping point: Examining the HIM implications and expectations now that a majority of US providers are using EHRs. Journal of AHIMA 85(3), 22–27. Retrieved from http://library.ahima.org/doc?oid=300285#.V_-nZcEVBqJ
112 “Middleware” refers to software that acts as a bridge between two systems to translate data and allow the two systems to interact. In the electronic health records market, middleware has recently been touted as a potential solution to the lack of interoperability between disparate systems, similar to the way this type of technology has been used in the financial and retail industries to bridge gaps between complex software applications. For more information, go to http://bok.ahima.org/doc?oid=107645#.V6THrLgrLic and http://www.healthcarebusinesstech.com/middleware-ehr-interoperability
113 Ajami, S., & Bagheri-Tadi, T. (2013). Barriers for adopting electronic health records (EHRs) by physicians. Acta Informatica Medica 21(2), 129–134. doi:10.5455/aim.2013.21.129-134. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3766548
114 Ibid.
115 Ibid; Ramaiah, M., Subrahmanian, E., Sriram, R. D., & Lide, B. B. (2012, Spring). Workflow and electronic health records in small medical practices (Perspectives in Health Information Management). Retrieved from http://perspectives.ahima.org/workflow-and-electronic-health-records-in-small-medical-practices
116 Mazzolini, C. (2013, November 25). EHR holdouts: Why some physicians refuse to plug in. Medical Economics. Retrieved from http://medicaleconomics.modernmedicine.com/medical-economics/content/tags/2013-salary-survey/ehr-holdouts-why-some-physicians-refuse-plug
117 Ajami, S., & Bagheri-Tadi, T. (2013). Barriers for adopting electronic health records (EHRs) by physicians. Acta Informatica Medica 21(2), 129–134. doi:10.5455/aim.2013.21.129-134. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3766548; Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology. Federal resources to help rural providers achieve meaningful use. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/fact-sheets/federal-resources-to-help-rural-providers-achieve-meaningful-use.pdf
118 Johnson, K. M., Kirby, A., Kadlec, L., Noreen, N. I., Brooks Taylor, L., Updegrove, J. L., & Warner, D. (2013). Data standards, data quality, and interoperability (2013 update). Journal of American Health Information Management Association 84(11), 64–69. Retrieved from http://library.ahima.org/doc?oid=107104#.V_-oRMEVBqJ
119 Health Level 7 International Web site: www.hl7.org
120 Irving, F. (2016, February 19) Sequoia and CommonWell: Paths to Health IT Interoperability. Health IT Interoperability. Retrieved from http://healthitinteroperability.com/news/sequoia-and-commonwell-paths-to-health-it-interoperability; Caplan, L., Davis, D., Heflin, E. & Isabel, K. (2016) The Sequoia Project & the Care Connectivity Consortium (CCC) Innovation Through Collaboration. Retrieved from http://sequoiaproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/CCC_TSP_Innovation-Through-Collaboration-vfinal.pdf
121 Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology. (2015). Report to Congress: Report on health information blocking. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/reports/info_blocking_040915.pdf
122 Hammond, W. E. (2005). The making and adoption of health data standards. Health Affairs 24(5), 1205–1213. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.24.5.1205. Retrieved from http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/24/5/1205.full
123 Committee on Data Standards for Patient Safety, Board on Health Care Services. (2004). Health care data standards. In P. Aspden, J. M. Corrigan, J. Wolcott, & S. M. Erickson (Eds.), Patient safety: achieving a new standard for care (pp. 127–168). Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Retrieved from https://www.nap.edu/read/10863/chapter/7
124 Ibid.
125 Bresnick, J. (2015, November 19). Which vendors lead the healthcare big data analytics market? Health IT Analytics. Retrieved from http://healthitanalytics.com/news/which-vendors-lead-the-healthcare-big-data-analytics-market; Bresnick, J. (2016, October 13). EHR vendors increasingly offering population health tools. Health IT Analytics. Retrieved from http://healthitanalytics.com/news/ehr-vendors-increasingly-offering-population-health-tools; Siwiki, B. (2016, February 29). Epic and Tableau deal links analytics to electronic health records. Healthcare IT News. Retrieved from http://www.healthcareitnews.com/news/epic-and-tableau-deal-links-analytics-electronic-health-records
126 Gilman, D. J., & Cooper, J. C. (2010). There is a time to keep silent and a time to speak, the hard part is knowing which is which: Striking the balance between privacy protection and the flow of health care information. Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review 16(2). Retrieved from http://repository.law.umich.edu/mttlr/vol16/iss2/1
127 Steele, G. (2016, September 20). The culture of data sharing has to change [Health Affairs blog post]. Retrieved from http://healthaffairs.org/blog/2016/09/20/the-culture-of-data-sharing-has-to-change; Kaushal, M., & Darling, M. (2016, May 18). Health care data as a public utility: How do we get there? [Brookings Institution Tech Tank blog post]. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/techtank/2016/05/18/health-care-data-as-a-public-utility-how-do-we-get-there
128 Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology. (2015). Report to Congress: Report on health information blocking. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/reports/info_blocking_040915.pdf
129 Agency for Health Care Research and Quality, (2014, September) Guide to Evaluating Health Information Exchange Projects. Retrieved from https://healthit.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/docs/page/guide-to-evaluating-hie-projects.pdf
130 Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2016, January 12). Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Program basics. Retrieved from CMS.gov Web site: https://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Legislation/EHRIncentivePrograms/Basics.html
131 Ibid.
132 HealthIT.gov. (2015) Meaningful Use Definition & Objectives. Retrieved from https://www.healthit.gov/providers-professionals/meaningful-use-definition-objectives
133 Young L. (2016, February 29) “HIE and Behavioral Health.” Presented to HIMSS 2016 Transforming Health through IT Conference, Retrieved from http://www.himssconference.org/sites/himssconference/files/pdf/INT%203.pdf
134 J. Everson et al. (2016, August 12) Health Information Exchange Associated with Improved Emergency Department Care Through Faster Accessing of Patient Information from Outside Organizations. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jamia/ocw116